Annotated bibliography

Question

Please read the Statement of Work and Proposal first. Then, find the annotated bibliography. Please force on these three categories (three annotated bibliography each category):
– dentity, Culture and Norms 
– Macroeconomic stability 
– Social, Environmental, and Geographical Context
PS. You can not use any article which is in the “Lit Review Titles” pdf

Answer

Annotated bibliography

Name of Student:

Institutional Affiliation:

Contents

Introduction. 2

Identity, Culture, and Norms. 2

World Bank (2003). 2

Davis (2010). 2

Sarfaty (2005). 3

Macroeconomic stability. 3

Guillaumont & Laajaj (2006). 3

Denizer, Kaufmann & Kraay (2011). 4

Burnside & Dollar (2004). 5

Social, Environmental, and Geographical Context. 5

Bräutigam & Segarra (2007). 5

International Monetary Fund (2009). 6

World Bank (2005). 7

References. 7

Introduction

Identity, Culture, and Norms

World Bank (2003)

            This report examines how various factors influenced the implementation of a World Bank project targeting the development of indigenous communities in Ecuador. Some of the factors relating to identity, culture and norms that were identified include cultural preferences of interest groups, cultural composition of the World Bank Project’s managing council, and a slow process of decision-making due to the need to address numerous stakeholders as required in the context of the indigenous culture. On a positive note, the resulting lengthy consultations led to a strong commitment among the indigenous communities, leading to the successful results of the project. This source is relevant for the current project, even though for the most part, it also addresses other factors that are not necessarily related to identity and culture such as cost and financing, sustainability, principal performance ratings, project data, and borrower performance.

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Davis (2010)

            This report highlights some of the critical issues relating to the interaction between the World Bank’s project implementation process and indigenous peoples. One highlight of this report is the persistent criticism of the World Bank by non-governmental organizations for impacting negatively on various cultural groups through the various projects it has implemented in different parts of the world. With the same breathe, the report appreciates the widespread recognition of the efforts being made by the World Bank in highlighting the various situations where economic development is placing the survival of indigenous groups in jeopardy. This report is relevant for the present study because it highlights the need for all World Bank projects to have a cultural component aimed at realigning current thinking in economic development circles with the specific needs of indigenous tribal groups.

Sarfaty (2005)

            This study sets out to investigate the role that the World Bank has played in terms of promoting compliance with indigenous rights norms. The relevant of this study arises from its applicability in project contexts, where an assessment can be made regarding the World Bank’s actual on-the-ground efforts to promote indigenous rights norms and how this influences project outcomes. Two major areas that the study assesses are conditionalities on the borrower nations and actual operational policies, both of which impact domestic cultural norms. Operational policies are for guiding World Bank Staff on how they should go about addressing identity-, culture-, and norm-related factors. According to this study, the World Bank has played a significant role in shaping domestic law, but it has overlooked the issue of indigenous peoples’ rights. This implies that numerous projects that are often assumed to be successful do not necessarily bring about positive consequences for the rights, cultural norms, and identities of indigenous peoples.

Macroeconomic stability

Guillaumont & Laajaj (2006)

            The aim of this paper is to investigate whether economic instability can enhance the success of World Bank projects. To answer this question, the study assesses the selected projects’ overall success as determined by an independent evaluation company. The commonly held view in mainstream macroeconomics research is that the most vulnerable countries reap the greatest benefits from World Bank projects because those projects mitigate the negative impact of shocks. Findings indicate that contrary to this conventional opinion, the success of projects implemented by various aid organizations such as the World Bank tends to be lower in unstable economies, and that macroeconomic instability harms aid projects in just the same it hurts other aspects of the economy. Another crucial finding is that when the total amount of funding in the form of aid increases, the success of projects tends to decrease. This phenomenon is attributed primarily to limitations in terms of absorptive capacity. This study is relevant because it provides crucial insights for project managers at the World Bank regarding the expected levels of project success under different levels of economic stability.

Denizer, Kaufmann & Kraay (2011)

            The aim of this study is to investigate various macro and micro measures of policy quality and how they relate to project outcomes. The data used is obtained from evaluations of over 6,000 projects implemented by the World Bank from 1983-2011. Its findings indicate that quality of policies at the country level is strongly correlated with outcomes of the World Bank Projects. This finding is consistent with findings in recent literature indicating that aid effectiveness is strongly influenced by country-level performance. However, variance in terms of the success of development projects is more pronounced within countries than it does among countries. Another finding is that project manager quality at World Bank has a significant role to play in the ultimate outcomes of individual projects. This paper is relevant because it provides valuable information on how the World Bank should implement individual projects in specific national contexts in order to achieve the best outcomes.

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Burnside & Dollar (2004)

            This study highlights the relationship between economic growth and foreign aid. The data set used in the analytical aspect focuses on World Bank projects during the 1990s. Its findings indicate that the outcomes of these projects were significantly influenced by the quality of policies and institutions. The strongest positive relationship was realized in situations where there was a confluence of institutional quality and appropriate project implementation approach. The study did not support the view that all World Bank projects have the same positive impact in all countries. For instance, it emerged that during the 1990s, countries with excellent institutional quality were favored by World Bank aid directed at low-income economies. This paper is relevant for the current project because it highlights the various ways in which the level of macroeconomic stability can determine the challenges encountered during the implementation of World Bank projects as well as the nature of outcomes that are likely to be realized. The diversity of types of information used in the analysis of cross-country comparison of project challenges also provides useful insights on how best to gather and analyze data in the current project with a view to enhance the validity of findings.

Social, Environmental, and Geographical Context

Bräutigam & Segarra (2007)

This study examines one of the social factors affecting the implementation of projects by the World Bank: the role of non-governmental organizations. In recent times, World Bank officials have struggled to pressure governments to involve non-governmental organizations in project execution. During the 1990s, these efforts were largely unsuccessful. However, by the early 2000s, NGOs had started getting involved in multiple projects. This study’s findings indicate that NGOs adopted a more strategic partnership approaches due to the emerging embeddedness of new ideas facilitated by an ongoing social learning process. The same thing may be said regarding changes in the attitude of various governments towards partnerships with NGOs. Throughout this social learning process, the World Bank has had to endure various non-technical challenges such as low levels of professionalism, near-absence of professional networks, and numerous incidences of historical conflicts, leading to unsuccessful project outcomes.

International Monetary Fund (2009)

            This progress highlights the various gains made by the World Bank its poverty reduction strategy for Gambia. Along with this highlight is an analysis of the various challenges the organization has encountered during the project implementation process as far as the specific social, environmental, and geographical context of the project is concerned. Gambia, the country where the project was undertaken is an extremely poor country, a factor that negatively affects the implementation process. Another challenge is that the Gambian government does not always support proposals by World Bank officials to increase budgetary allocations to poverty-eradication programs. Nevertheless, major inroads have been made in the field of reform in public expenditure management, although this success has ushered in the next challenging phase, that of ensuring the sustainability of those reforms. Another environmental factor arises from Gambia’s status as a predominantly agricultural country. Lack of specificity in terms of strategies targeting the agricultural industry has been a major challenge for project implementation by World Bank Officials. Consequently, the World Bank has had to commence with program execution in a situation where priority policies have not been properly outlined. This study is relevant because it provides crucial ideas regarding the challenges that may arise due to social, environmental, and geographic factors during project implementation by the World Bank.

World Bank (2005)

This report analyzes gender as a critical social factors in the implementation of projects supported by the World Bank. Indeed, gender is an important variable that influences project challenges and outcomes. The World Bank is at the forefront of addressing gender issues relating to development. An important starting point for the organization is the reiteration of the idea that development is not gender-neutral since unique measures may need to be put in place to ensure that women benefit from various development projects as much as men. Findings indicate that World Bank officials often find it hard to establish standard norms for entrenching gender-equitable participation because social norms vary from one geographical context to another.

References

Bräutigam, D. & Segarra, M. (2007). Difficult Partnerships: The World Bank, States, and NGOs. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(4), 149-181.

Burnside, C. & Dollar, D. (2004). Aid, Policies, and Growth: Revisiting the Evidence. World Bank Policy Research Paper, Number O-2834.

Davis, S. (2010). The World Bank and Indigenous Peoples. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Denizer, C., Kaufmann, D. & Kraay, A. (2011). Good Countries or Good Projects? Macro and Micro Correlates of World Bank Project Performance. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Guillaumont, P. & Laajaj, R. (2006). When instability increases the effectiveness of aid projects. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4034, October 2006.

International Monetary Fund. (2009). The Gambia: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper—Annual Progress Report—Joint Staff Advisory Note. IMF Country Report No. 09/76.

Sarfaty, G. (2005). The World Bank and the Internalization of Indigenous Rights Norms. The Yale Law Journal, 114, 1791-1818.

World Bank. (2005). Gender-Responsive Social Analysis: A Guidance Note: Incorporating Social Dimensions into Bank-Supported Projects. Washington, D.C.: Social Development Department, The World Bank.

World Bank. (2003). Implementation completion report on a loan in the amount of us$25.0 million to the republic of Ecuador for an indigenous and afro-Ecuadorian peoples development project. January 21, 2003. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

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