Exam Questions

Questions

_____4.           Describe an example illustrating the Tragedy of the Commons.

_____5.           Describe an example of a negative externality associated with oil production and describe one way to mitigate the effect of that negative externality.

_____6.           What was the rationale behind the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934?

_____7.           Name which forest harvesting technique is generally best from an economic standpoint and which is best from an environmental standpoint and describe how each is done.

_____8.           Before certain projects can begin in the US, the project owner must file an EIS.  What is an EIS and what is the purpose of an EIS?

_____9.           Describe urban sprawl and how it happens.

Answers

Multiple questions

Tragedy of commons

This refers to an economic theory that postulates that individuals acting independently use and deplete a resource driven by their selfish interests as opposed to common good. For instance, landowners in Los Angeles who use water pumped from wells in their lands drew so much water from the groundwater aquifer to meet their needs leaving it vulnerable to intrusion by saltwater.

Oil-associated negative externally and way to mitigate it

            A common oil associated negative externally is environmental damage caused during the production, supply and use of oil such as oil leaks or spillage or oil fires. This can be mitigated through operational controls, preventing the spills from reaching waterways as well as developing countermeasures for cleaning up and controlling its effects.

Taylor Grazing Act of 1934

            This refers to an American federal law that regulates grazing on public lands (apart from Alaska) with the aim of improving rangeland conditions and regulating their use. It seeks to prevent soil deterioration and overgrazing thus provide its systematic use, development and improvement (Bureau of Land Management, n.p).

Forest harvesting technique

            Forest harvesting refers to the process of felling trees and delivering to sawmill. I believe that diameter-limit cut is the best harvesting technique from an economic standpoint as it provides high income by felling larger trees leaving smaller trees to grow for future harvests. Thinning harvest is the best from an environmental perspective as it reduces unhealthy competition between trees thus improve the productivity and health of forests.

EIS and its purpose

            Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) refers to a document that describes adverse and positive environmental effects of a given action and any alternative action that maybe chosen in place of the initial action. It aids in decision making by requiring agencies to consider any project’s environmental costs.

Urban sprawl

            The term urban sprawl denotes the spreading out of human populations away from inner urban areas into low-density areas as well as the environmental and social consequences associated with the development. These consequences include water overconsumption, increased air pollution and loss of wildlife habitat. Urban sprawl happens due to freedom and personal choice to live outside major cities.

Works Cited

Bureau of Land Management. The Taylor Grazing Act. 2016. Web.

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