Environmental Science Essay

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Assignment 27: Human Population

            The human population is closely related to pollution in the world. As the human population grows, there is more demand for resources that will help in sustaining the life of human beings. As a result, this places stress on the resources leading to the destruction of the environment. According to Douglas Fraser, Barry LeDrew, Angela Vavitsas, and Meredith White-McMahon, the current human population stands at approximately 7 billion people (642). The exponential growth of the human population has been as a result of the human capacity to expand to habitats that were previously uninhabited by human beings. Human beings have successfully removed the limiting factors that previously restrained the growth in population that included harsh living conditions, insufficient food, and diseases. Human beings have continuously improved their living conditions through scientific and technological inventions that have facilitated improved agricultural methods, improved health, and adaptation to climatic conditions that were previously considered uninhabitable. However, an increase in the human population is placing a lot of strain on the resources. A key threat to the world remains to be pollution that is perpetrated by human beings. It has led to tremendous pressure being put on land, water pollution, as well as air pollution. Therefore, the exponential growth of the human population is a threat to the world.


            Human beings depend majorly on land as a resource to provide them with basic components for survival. Land is the main source of food and habitat for human beings. Therefore, as the population grows, more strain is placed on land due to the demand for habitat and food. The human beings’ population explosion has necessitated the expansion into territories that were previously inhabited by them. Expansion into new habitats results into the loss of other species of animals and plants (Conor n.p.). One way of expansion is through the clearing of forests to create room for agriculture and houses. Deforestation leads to the destruction of indigenous tree species as well as loss of natural habitat for most animals. The cutting down of trees even poses a threat to man because it destroys the water catchment areas leading to reduced rainfall (Fraser et al. 656). The land is also left bare leading to fertile top soil being carried away through wind erosion. Human beings, therefore, become a threat to both the environment and themselves. The expansion of human activities into habitats that were previously occupied by other animals has led to extinction or threat of extinction of some animals. For example, panda has become an endangered species due to encroachment into its indigenous habitat in the mountains of China. Human activities have led to the destruction of its habitat. Despite efforts by the Chinese government to protect the animal, human population explosion has made it impossible to reclaim all its lost habitat.

            The unchecked population has the potential to cause harm to the environment through the pollution of the atmosphere. Human beings are continuously moving to the cities thus leading to the growth of the cities and increasing pollution to the atmosphere. There is rapid urbanization due to the demand for jobs and housing. In turn, there are tons of waste that are produced that contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere (Fraser et al. 654). There is a rapid increase in the emission of dangerous gases into the atmosphere as a result of increased urbanization. Governments have majored on building factories that will help in the production of products that satisfy human needs. Most of the companies rely on fossil fuel as their source of energy thus leading to the pollution of the atmosphere by the dangerous emissions that are produced. The companies rely on raw materials for manufacturing and production. The raw materials and the finished products have to be transported to and from the manufacturing companies by the use of trucks and ships in the oceans. People also have to move from one place to another by using buses and cars. The more the population increases the more the manufacturing companies keep working. The cycle thus generates dangerous emissions to the atmosphere that lead to its destruction. The destruction of the atmosphere has led to acid rain and ozone depletion. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are products of coal burning that accumulate in the clouds and lead to formation of rain acid.


            An increase in the population of human beings is continuously leading to increased water pollution. Human beings produce waste products most of which end up in the water bodies. Every year, an estimated eight tons of garbage normally end up in the oceans (Conor n.p.). Apart from the garbage, other pollutants that end up in the oceans include the excessive amounts of fertilizers that are used by human beings to increase their soil fertility. The dangerous fertilizers are deposited to the oceans through rain, wind, and storms. The world has become reliant on fertilizer to aid in increasing yields. The increased human population demands a high quantity of agricultural products. The fertilizer contains nitrogen that when deposited into the oceans leads to a rapid growth of algae thus reducing the amount of oxygen in the water bodies and releasing poisonous substances that lead to the death of plants and animals that depend on the water.

            The exponential growth of human beings in the world is thus a threat to the world. The activities needed to support the increasing number of people in the world leads to the pollution of the earth. The increased population has placed a strain on land due to the increased demand for food and habitat. The human activities have also led to the destruction of the atmosphere as a result of the dangerous emissions that are produced. The exponential growth of the human being population has also led to water pollution through waste products and excess fertilizer that are deposited in the oceans.

Works Cited

Connor, Steve. Overpopulation ‘is the Main Threat to Planet.’ Independent. 7 January, 2006. Internet Source.

Fraser, Douglas, Barry LeDrew, Angela Vavitsas, Meredith White-McMahon. Biology 12. Toronto, Ontario: Nelson Education Ltd. Print.

World Population Balance. Understanding Exponential Growth. World Population Balance. 2018. Internet Source.

Assignment 28: Career Portfolio


            An entomologist is a person who is concerned with insects and studies them in order to discover their relationship with their environment, other animals and human beings (Environmental Science Org. n.p.). By studying entomology, one gains insight into other broader topics that include ecology, social evolution, and evolution. The study of insects is important because they engage in critical functions for life on earth. Besides, insects outnumber other forms of life when combined. Therefore, entomologists are important persons on earth because they conduct research and provide information on the best ways to conserve insect species, appropriate ways to pollinate crops, and how to protect wildlife, crops, livestock, and trees from pests.


            For one to become a professional entomologist, they have to pursue a degree in biology, entomology, or zoology. During the degree course, one will learn a variety of topics that include pest management, insect biology and physiology, insect taxonomy, insect-borne diseases, aquatic entomology, and veterinary entomology (Environmental Science Org. n.p.). One can further advance their education by pursuing a masters and a Ph.D. where they can choose from insect pathology, pest management, population dynamics, and evolutionary biology. One can further become a professional by pursuing certification known as Board Certified Entomologist (Environmental Science Org. n.p.). The daily responsibilities of the position include doing research work, pest control, and chemical production. Entomologists can work in varying organizations that include colleges and universities, industrial companies, agriculture and research as well as agricultural institutes.

            Being an entomologist has both advantages and disadvantages. An entomologist gets the opportunity to travel widely and explore various places in their course of research. The profession provides a unique job experience by studying nature and behavior of insects. One learns various things about insects to the point that they start to appreciate them (Amateur Entomologists Association n.p.). The disadvantages of the profession include that the insects may be harmful to the researchers, the job maybe uneventful if one does not love nature, and the job that is done by the entomologists is mainly not appreciated.


            An ecologist is involved in the study of the interrelationships between organisms as well as their environment (Philip n.p.). An ecologist conducts research to establish how various creatures that live in the desert, wetlands, forests, or any other environmental ecosystems interact. For example, ecologists may be involved in studying the food chain relationships among different species. Ecologists can also investigate the role that different species play in a community. The ecologists are thus important because they help to provide insights on how nature works and the decisions that can be made to help in minimizing the effect caused by human activities.

            Ecologists are concerned with how organisms live in their surroundings and the environment so that it continues to grow. The profession requires a college education. A person willing to become an ecologist can pursue a degree in biological science or ecology (Philip n.p.). If one wishes to become researchers or work in administrative positions, they can pursue a masters or Ph.D. in ecology. Ecologists have various roles that include developing and testing hypotheses on ecosystem functions, population, and communities (Philip n.p.). They are involved in studying plant characteristics, as well as analysis of data using statistical analysis. Ecologists can work in various organizations that include non-governmental organizations and governmental organizations that deal in conservation. The ecologists can also work in colleges and research organizations to teach as well as conduct research.

            A career in ecology has various advantages that include assisting in making environmental and ecological habitats healthy, educates both the private and public sector, and they earn an income that is higher the national median (Quora n.p.). The work of an ecologist is, however, demanding, travel intensive, and requires one to have high accuracy.

Biopesticide Researcher

            Biopesticide researchers are important because they help in the production of biologically based agents that are important in the control of plant pests (Moore n.p.). Biopesticide researchers avoid using agents that are chemical-based. Instead, they utilize naturally occurring microorganisms that are helpful in protecting crop product or chemical free crop-protection agents. Biopesticide agents are important in creating sustainable agricultural systems that help in protecting unwanted pest (Moore n.p.). Biopesticides are important because they protect plants without using chemicals, and therefore they do not contribute to pollution. Biopesticide researchers are thus important because they promote sustainable agriculture practices by using their first line of defense as helpful organisms.

            The profession requires one to have a degree education in biological sciences with training in biopesticides. Biopesticide researchers can be based in the field or in the laboratory. Those who like to work as consultants or in independent research positions can pursue advanced education in biopesticides. Biopesticide researchers engage in various roles that include conducting research on organism to help identify those that can be used to promote sustainable agricultural practices (Moore n.p.). Engaging in research to help in establishing non-chemical agents that can help in fighting pests without harming the environment. The professionals in this field can work in government as well as non-governmental bodies that specialize in research on biopesticides. A career in the field is advantageous because it allows the researcher to contribute to sustainable agriculture. The profession is also well paying. A disadvantage of the career is that it requires patience since it can take a long time before a pesticide is developed.



            A horticulturist is mainly concerned with plant conservation. However, there are other aspects of the profession that include arboriculture, soil management, and landscape restoration. In most instances, people have limited horticulturalists to only dealing with plants (Environmental Programs n.p.). For example, horticulturalists will play an important role in the creation of smart cities with the population of those living in them set to grow. Sustainable cities will be expected to offer more green space and a sustainable environment. Therefore, horticulturalists have an important role in the creation of a sustainable environment.

            Pursuing a career in horticulture requires that one studies a bachelor’s degree as an entry level position while a master’s degree can be used for advancement. The main degree is in the field of horticulture (Environmental Programs n.p.). However, one can also pursue a degree in plant science or soil science. Apart from the degree, one can also pursue for a licensure although it is not mandatory. The course entails both theoretical work and laboratory experiments. The students gain knowledge that is associated to plants and can be applied in various areas that include land conservation, building and construction, soil conservation, as well as landscape management (Environmental Programs n.p.). The daily responsibilities of the position include planting and maintaining gardens, conducting experiments on plant genetics as well as breeding, planning gardens, and offering advise on increasing crop yields. Horticulturists can work in various fields that include landscaping and construction, research firms, and garden centers. The advantages of working as a horticulturalist include helping with conservation efforts by creating green spaces, being involved in various landscape planning activities, and getting an opportunity to tour various natural places while in line of duty. One disadvantage of the profession is that high paying work requires a lot of formal training, for example, research and biotechnology.


            Epidemiologists are scientists that are involved in studying diseases in defined populations (Schwartz n.p.). They attempt to find out the disease conditions and health conditions that determine a person’s well-being. They also study the distribution of diseases among populations. Most of their professional work involves conducting experiments, doing risk assessment analysis, and doing surveys and interviews in populations that they are interested in studying the disease patterns (Schwartz n.p.). The epidemiologists act as disease detectives since they are involved in analyzing the causes of diseases so that they can treat the existing conditions and limit the chances of future outbreaks.

            A career in the field of epidemiology requires that one has at least a masters degree in the field of epidemiology or public health. It is a research-intensive profession hence the need for extensive education. An epidemiologist has various roles that include investigation of diseases through collection and analysis of health data, preparation of technical reports, providing consultation services, and lecturing about diseases in various organizations (Schwartz n.p.). They are also involved in providing recommendations for containment and treatment of communicable diseases. They work in both governmental and non-governmental agencies that deal with research on diseases. The main advantage of working in the profession is that it is high paying. One also gets to interact with different people in the process of conducting research. The disadvantages of the profession include the risk of contacting communicable diseases and it requires intensive training.


Amateur Entomologists Association. Become an Entomologist. 2018. Internet Resource.

Environmental Programs. Horticulture: Academic Requirements, Professional Outlook. 2012. Internet Resource

Environmental Science Org. What is an Entomologist? 2018. Internet Resource.

Moore, Jim. The Importance of Biopesticides. Greenhouse Grower. 25 April 2009. Internet Resource.

Philip. How to Become an Ecologist. Eco Globe. 28 May 2017. Internet Resource.

Quora. What Is It Like to Be an Ecologist? Forbes. 21 April 2016. Internet Resource.

Schwartz, H. David. A Guide to Careers in Epidemiology. Public Health Online. 2018. Internet Resource

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