Food Technology Assignment

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Contents

Introduction. 1

Purpose. 1

Hypothesis. 2

Materials. 2

Procedure. 2

Results. 3

Conclusions. 3

Introduction. 5

History of the Use of Enzymes in Food Industry. 5

Advances in the Use of Enzymes. 6

Enzymes used in the Food Industry. 7

Pros and Cons. 7

Works Cited. 9

Assignment 1: Lab Assignment

How Substrate Concentration and PH Affect Enzyme-Controlled Reactions

Introduction

There are many people that suffer from an enzyme related condition that is referred to as lactose intolerance. Lactase is an important enzyme because it assists in the digestion process of milk by breaking down the milk sugar (lactose) into component parts that include glucose and galactose. Apart from helping in breaking down the lactose, it also helps to prevent bloating, constipation, gas, cramping, and diarrhea. Lactose is a type of sugar that is mainly found in milk and dairy products. It is impossible for the human body to naturally absorb the sugar hence the need for enzyme lactase. Metabolizing of the sugar breaks it down into smaller components that can be absorbed by the body. Without the enzyme, lactose will remain in the digestive system and will not be absorbed by the body.

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Purpose

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of substrate concentration and PH on the initial rate of enzyme catalyzed reactions.

Hypothesis

An increase in substrate concentration and the pH level results in an increase in the initial rate of enzyme reaction.

Materials

The material used in the experiment included enzyme lactase, and the substrate lactose.

Procedure

The first step involved pouring the enzyme concentration on five test tubes and setting the pH level to five different levels that included level 3,5,7,9 and 11.

The second step involved weighing the substrate to have five portions that each weigh 0.5 grams.

The first portion of the substrate was then added to the first test tube with an enzyme concentration of pH level 3, the second portion was added to the second test tube with pH level 5, third portion to the third test tube with pH level 7, the fourth portion to the test tube with pH level 9, and the fifth portion to the test tube with pH level 11. The results were then recorded on a table.

The next step involved pouring out the contents in the test tubes and adding the same quantity of enzyme concentration to the 5 test tubes. The pH levels were similar to the first stage, that is 3,5,7,9, and 11.

The next procedure involved measuring the substrate into five portions of 1.0 grams and adding them to the five test tubes as explained in the first stage. The results were then recorded in the second row of the table.

The procedure was similarly done for the next substrate portions of 2.0 grams, 4.0 grams, and 8.0 grams and the results were recorded in the table.

Results

The results of the experiment indicated that adding a substrate of 0.5g to the five test tubes of enzyme concentration with pH levels of 3,5,7,9, and 11 produced an enzyme reaction of 19, 39, 72, 45, and 24 respectively. Adding a substrate of 1.0g on the five test tubes with different pH levels produced an enzyme reaction of 39, 81, 145, 91, and 49. Adding the next quantity of substrate weighing 2.0g to each of the five test tubes produced an enzyme reaction of 82, 168, 300, 189, and 103. The next involved a substrate weighing 4.0g and it produced an enzyme reaction of 96, 198, 350, 223, and 121 respectively. A similar procedure with 8.0g produced an enzyme reaction with the same results.

Conclusions

The results of the experiment revealed that an increase in the substrate concentration and the pH level results in an initial increased reaction up to a substrate concentration of 4.0g and a pH level of 7. There exists a linear relationship in the initial reaction rate as exemplified by the results. A gradual increase in the concentration of the substrate results in an initial reaction that is stronger and faster.

A maximum initial reaction rate is achieved at a pH level of 7.

An increase in the substrate concentration results in a stronger and faster reaction. This implies that the substrate concentration has to reach a certain level in a particular level of enzyme concentration for the initial maximum reaction rate to be achieved. Low concentration level does not permit the achievement of maximum initial reaction.

The optimum pH level for the reaction is a pH level of 7.

The experiment provides evidence of the critical role played by the temperature-regulating mechanisms in the living organisms. A higher temperature results in a more effective performance by the enzymes while lower temperatures make the enzymes to be slow and less effective. The functions of the enzymes are thus significantly affected by the temperature levels.

The special considerations of the lactase pill that the producer need to be concerned about includes the digestion of the pill. A person consuming the lactase enzyme pill may not be able to digest it and it will thus not fulfil the intended purpose. The lack of digestion could be due to the pH levels.

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Assignment 2: Applications of Enzymes

Application of Enzymes in the Food Industry

Introduction

            Enzymes are proteins that have catalytic properties. They help in speeding reactions. They have the power of a specific activation. However, it should be noted that not all biological molecules that are capable of catalytic activity are proteins. The enzymes that are used in the food industry are, however, all proteins. Enzymes remain unaltered in a reaction process hence can be used over and over again to catalyze more reactions (Birch, Blakebrough, and Parker 31). Any alterations that are made to enzymes during the process of a reaction can be reversed. In most cases, the enzymes have to be energized for them catalyze reaction. They can be energized through heating. The enzymes that are commonly used in the food industry are referred to as hydrolases. It is also important to note that the amount of enzyme concentration determines their reaction rate(Whitehurst and Van Oort 27). In the food industry, the cheese and brewing manufacturers rely on the enzyme activity for the various stages of their processing. Traditional products like yoghurts are also reliant on the enzymes.

History of the Use of Enzymes in Food Industry

            Enzymes have been in use in the food industry for a long time. For example, the use of enzyme in tenderization of meat began over 600 years ago when the Mexican Indians wrapped meat in papaya leaves when cooking to make them tender (Birch, Blakebrough, and Parker 51). There are many manufacturers that have incorporated the use of enzymes since then for production of various products. Cheese and yoghurt manufacturers use enzymes to aid in the manufacturing of those products. Enzymes can be got from both plant tissues and animals. There are also enzymes that are produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and yeasts, that have been in use for centuries in the manufacturing of food products (Whitehurst and Van Oort 34). The cheese makers have used rennet in the production of cheese for many years. Rennet refers to an enzyme that is found in the stomach of domestic animals, especially calves. The enzyme occurs naturally. It contains the protease enzyme that is commonly utilized in the coagulation of milk. It results in the separation of solid and liquid parts of milk.Enzymes have also been used in the wine industry to facilitate fermentation of grape juice. The commonly used enzyme in the wine and beer industry is yeast.

Advances in the Use of Enzymes

The commercial production of enzymes began in the twentieth century after the technological advances that allowed for the isolation of enzymes from living cells. The advancement in technology has thus facilitated the wider application of the use of enzymes in the food industry. Currently, commercial enzymes are produced in a large scale from the microorganisms. Microorganisms can be optimized through the process of natural selection so that they can produce enzymes (Whitehurst and Van Oort 38). Classical breeding techniques have also been used in the production of enzymes.

The technological advancement has also allowed for a direct genetic modification. Scientists can now achieve a more enhanced catalytic enzyme reactions since it is possible to implement more precise methods. This has been caused by the advancements that have been achieved in the field of biotechnology. The new methods allow for facilitation of the production of organism that yield high quantities of enzymes. Through biotechnology, it has become possible get the genetic sequence from animals and plants thus aiding in the commercial production of enzymes. The obtained sequences can be transferred to other organisms for the purposes of mass production of enzymes to aid in food production.

The genetically modified organisms produce enzymes that are not genetically modified, which implies that the enzymes are the same as those that occur naturally. After their production, the enzymes undergo a process of purification thus making them safe to be used in food production purposes. Although the microorganisms produced artificially cannot survive in the natural world, their importance from a commercial standpoint cannot be downplayed.

Enzymes used in the Food Industry

            Enzymes that are used in the food industry include alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, beta-glucanase, lipase, papain, chymosin, microbial proteases, pectinase, lactase, acetolactate decarboxylase, glucose oxidase, and cellulase(Birch, Blakebrough, and Parker 67). The alpha-amylase assists in the conversion of starch into dextrins that is used in the production of corn syrup. Barley contains starch. Dextrins thus helps in increasing the solubility of the starch so that it can be utilized in the brewing industry. The conversion of dextrins can also be facilitated by glucoamylase. Beta-glucanase is breaks down the glucans in malt.

Pros and Cons

            The use of enzymes in the food production industry has helped in increasing the productivity and making the process of production more effective. For example, the use beta-glucanase has eased the process of filtration in the brewing industry thus enhancing the production of alcohol (Whitehurst and Van Oort 42). Enzymes help in the production of high quality food products that do not compromise the health and safety of human beings. Enzymes can be disadvantageous in the sense that they can be injurious to health when they attack the body tissues.

            The use of enzymes in the food industry has been helpful because it has facilitated more effective practices of food production. For example, the enzymes have been used to tenderize meat, produce cheese, and yoghurt. The usage of the enzymes in the food industry will continue growing due to the demand for more food products as a result of the increased demand due to population growth.

Works Cited

Birch, Gordon Gerard, Norman Blakebrough, and Kenneth John Parker. Enzymes and food processing. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

Whitehurst, Robert J., and Maarten Van Oort, eds. Enzymes in food technology. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.

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