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Question

Critique of Nursing Theories and PowerPoint Presentation
[this paper requires you to deliver to items: an 8-page ms word paper and a 20-slide powerpoint presentation]


Students will apply the following guidelines to the critiques of nursing theory:
1. Introduction
2. Select a grand or broad theory and a mid-range theory of nursing practice.
3. Use the “Guide for the description of Theory”; and “Guide for the Critical Reflection of Theory”; (Chinn & Kramer, 2015, Chapter 8) to critique the theories selected. Full book details: Knowledge Development in Nursing-E-Book: Theory and Process by PL Chinn, MK Kramer – 2015.
4. Compare and contrast the broad and mid-range theory.
5. Using the broad theory as a framework, describe a client situation and expected outcomes.
6. Outline the process of advanced practice as articulated within the theory selected.
7. Using the mid-range theory, describe how an advanced practice nurse would facilitate the outcomes identified in the broad theory. (Include a diagram of theories as they are applied to the client).
8. Conclusion
The body of the paper should not exceed 8 pages. Scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced and double spaced paper. A minimum of 8 references are required. References MUST BE DATED BETWEEN 2010 and 2017. 

Presentation Guidelines
Students will prepare a presentation of the nursing theory critique using PowerPoint. The presentation should be no longer than 20-25 minutes in length or 20 slides (excluding the title and reference slides). Presentation must contain a few images and SPEAKER NOTES. The presentation will be posted in the discussion forum. Students will review and critique the presentations in the discussion forum. The student will answer all discussion questions and participate in online group discussions regarding their theory critique. 


I chose the writer who did my previous paper (207987049 Concept Analysis Paper). Make sure he knows how to write this paper. It is complicated.

Answer

Critique of Nursing Theories

Contents

Introduction. 2

Description of Theory of Human Caring. 2

Critical Reflection of the Theory of Human Caring. 4

Description of the Theory of Comfort 6

Critical Reflection of the Theory of Comfort 7

Comparison of the Theories. 8

Description of a Client Situation. 9

Facilitation of Outcomes. 9

Conclusion. 12

References. 13

Introduction

            Nursing theories are important because they offer guidelines regarding nursing practice. Besides, they provide information regarding the goals and functions of nursing. The theories can be categorized into three broad categories: practice theories, middle-range theories and grand theories. The general categorizations of the theories differ in terms of their characteristics. For the purposes of this critique, the focus will be on grand and middle-range nursing theories. The grand nursing theory to be critiqued is Theory of Human Caring by Jean Watson. The middle-range theory to be critiqued is the Theory of Comfort by Katharine Kolcaba. The critique of these theories will involve both description and critical reflection.

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Description of Theory of Human Caring

            The theory of human caring was formulated to help guide nurses in taking care of the patient needs. According to the theories, professional nurses should be compassionate in their delivery of care (Alligood, 2014). They should be able to take good care of the needs of the patients, and the care should translate into better plans that help in the promotion of health and wellness. The compassionate care should also result in the prevention of illness as well as restoration of health. The theory posits that the main aim of nursing is to prevent illness, promote health, provide care for the sick, as well as endeavor to restore health (Clark, 2016). Its main purpose is to promote health throughproper treatment of illnesses and proper care. The theory posits that the main function of the nurse is to provide care to that leads to the promotion of healthfor patients. According to the theory, the achievement of the purpose does not explicitly require a nursing context. Health promotion can occur in various contexts that include home and school environments. It is applicable to both clinical and non-clinical environments. In clinical environments, the aim is to promote wellness and provide treatment for ailments (Yeter, 2015). In non-clinical settings, the objective is to prevent illness while promoting health.

            The major concepts that make up the theory of human caring include the society, human being, health, and nursing (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). The human being refers to the person to whom care is being given. For the promotion of health and treatment, the human being has to be respected, understood, assisted, and nurtured. The society is deeply connected to human beings because it provides the values that determine people’s behavior. On the other hand,health plays a pivotal role in creating the whole self. Unity and harmony of the human body, mind, and soul is created through good health. Therefore,it is important for nurses to create efforts that lead to absence of illness so that human beings can experience unity and harmony. The core sub-concepts of the theory include time, the self, and the phenomenal field.

            All the concepts of the theory have been explicitly defined, and the interrelationships have been extrapolated in research. The society is defined as the tool that provides values that determine the way people should behave and the goals that should be pursued. The caring nature of a person is not transmitted through genes, but rather, culture. The cultural practices of a society provide the values that inspire each individual caring about another individual (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). The human being is the person that is supposed to be cared for. Therefore, culture and human beings are related by the fact that culture provides values that determine the relationships among humankind. Health refers to the peace that exists between the body, mind, and soul. It is possible for one to be free of illness but still have a troubled mind. In that case, the person is not considered as healthy. A healthy person should be free of illness as well as other related factors that trouble their mind and soul. The nurse is responsible for providing professional care by treating illness and dealing with related experiences as well as developing interpersonal relationships that promote recovery from disease and ill health.

            Meanwhile, Theory of Human Caring is founded on several assumptions. To begin with, it assumes that care is practiced effectively when it involves interpersonal aspects. This assumption implies that nurses should form a personal relationship with patients in order to provide effective care. It also assumes that providing effective care leads to the promotion of healthand the growth of both the family and an individual(Pajnkihar et al., 2017). The theory also assumes that caring complements curing. Therefore, health is achieved when caring and curing are combined. Lastly, it assumes that the practice of caring is integration to success in the nursing profession.

Critical Reflection of the Theory of Human Caring

            The theory of human caring is straightforward and easy to comprehend as it defines all the major concepts and establishes their links in the theory. There are four major concepts involved that include human being, nursing, society, and health. The theory gives the definition based on the context. One is able to understand the meaning of the words and the relationship that exists between the concepts. All the assumptions made in the construction of the theory are consistent with the purpose of the theory. The main purpose of the theory is to promote health and treatment of illness (Pajnkihar et al., 2017). This is connected to the assumption that caring complements curing. Providing treatment and care for patients leads to them feeling well hence healthy. Nurses are also supposed to form interpersonal relationships with the patients so as to promote the achievement of positive outcomes that lead to good health.

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            The theory is simple since it organizes the relationships within concepts in a clear way. The four concepts that make up the theory have been properly explained, with relationships among them being clearly illustrated. For example, it identifies the relationship between human beings and the environment or society. The society provides a culture that is used to guide human behavior or interaction (Clark, 2016). This way, the theory attempts to create meaning of nursing care by outlining concepts that will promote healing and good health.

            While theory of human caring is intended for nursing practice, its generality implies that it could as well be implemented in other areas of practice. It is more focused on the whole self as opposed to treatment of illnesses. It is focused on promoting wholesome health through treatment as well as proper care. The theory defines health as having peace and harmony of the body, mind, and soul (Sitzman & Watson, 2013). The definition implies that care can be provided in all aspects of the society including within the family, in the workplace, church, and school. The key is to establish interpersonal relationships that are guided by the values of the society.

            The theory is important as it illustrates a way of achieving wholesome health. The theorist provides that good health is more than the absence of illness. One should also have the peace of mind and soul. Therefore care acts a complement of cure. For one to be completely healed from an illness, they should be given proper care to promote the peace of mind and soul.

Description of the Theory of Comfort

            The theory of comfort is a middle-range theory of nursing whose main purpose is to illustrate that nursing should lead to a desirable outcome of comfort. The theory was developed through analysis of literature from various disciplines that include psychology, nursing, English, and psychiatry among other subjects (Kolcaba, 2015). It considers nursing as an art that should lead to the achievement of comfort. Therefore, the theorist main purpose is to promote the achievement of comfort in the provision of healthcare.

            The major concepts of the theory are relief, ease, and transcendence. Apart from the concepts, the theorist has provided four contexts under which comfort can be achieved; they include psychospiritual, sociocultural, physical, and environmental (Kolcaba, 2015). The three concepts are interrelated since they all lead to the achievement of comfort. Comfort is achieved when the needs of an individual are met. Relief comfort is arrived at when a patient is relieved off pain after an operation procedure (Krinsky, Murillo, & Johnson, 2014). Ease comfort is achieved when a patient’s needs are addressed. For example, when a stomachache that was resulting in pain to a patient is addressed, then they feel the ease comfort. Transcendence is the ability of the patients to rise above their challenges. When a person who was bedridden as a result of a disease can get treatment and then they are able to go on with their normal lives again, then the state of comfort is achieved in the form of transcendence. The definitions for the concepts have been clearly provided thus promoting the understanding of the theory.

            The relationships of the major concepts have been clearly illustrated. When a person is sick, they experience discomfort as a result of the symptoms of the disease. When the pain as a result of the illness is addressed, the feel relieved. At the same time, they feel ease comfort because the health professionals address their needs. When they are finally cured, the patients are then able to go on with their normal lives, a state of comfort that is referred to as transcendence (Kolcaba, 2015). The relationships are presented in a form of hierarchy. The patient should first be relieved of the pain, they then feel ease when their illness is addressed, and finally they reach transcendence when they are able to go back to their normal lives. The relationship created has been used to expand the concepts. One is able to view the concept of healthcare as organized into three forms of relief, ease, and transcendence to provide comfort to a patient.

Critical Reflection of the Theory of Comfort

            The theory of comfort is clear and easy to understand because the definitions of the concept as well as the major relationships between the concepts have been explained. The theory is clear both in terms of semantic and structure. The words used to describe the concepts of the theory and the definitions are clear making them easy to understand. In terms of presentation, the theory is clear as it begins with the background of the theorist, the concepts, development, description, and lastly the conclusion. The theory is simple because it addresses a single relational component (Krinsky, Murillo, & Johnson, 2014). The component addressed is how comfort is achieved in healthcare through relief of pain, ease, and transcendence. One is able to clearly establish the relationship between the three concepts and comfort.

            The theory is general because the concepts addressed are applicable to various spheres of life. The concepts can be used to achieve comfort in different areas of experience. Apart from the healthcare settings, the concepts can be applicable in family settings and work settings. Comfort is achieved when problems that exist within a family are solved. This is also the case in the work settings. Effective problem-solving measures result in relief, ease, and transcendence when a problem has been successfully addressed (Owen, 2016). The theory is accessible because the meanings provided to the concepts are empirically grounded.

            The theory is important to nursing practice because the aim of health care is to provide comfort to the patients by addressing their illnesses. The theory emphasizes holistic care in the achievement of comfort in health care (Kolcaba, 2015). Nursing practice should lead to relief, ease, and transcendence. The patient should be relieved off pain that is caused by illness. They should also fee ease once their ailment is treatment. Lastly, the patients should be able to go on with their normal lives after they have gone through medical treatment.

Comparison of the Theories

            The theory of human caring and the theory of comfort have different concepts and relationships. The main concepts in the theory of human caring are health, human beings, society, and nursing, while the concepts in the theory of comfort are relief, ease, and transcendence. The theory of human caring thus views care as different from the process of curing. The relationship of the concepts in the theory of comfort establishes care as a process that is contained in the process of cure (Alligood, 2014). Health care leads to the achievement of comfort through relief, ease, and transcendence. In the theory of human caring, care and cure leads to the provision of holistic care while in the theory of comfort, holistic nursing leads to achievement of comfort.

            The two theories are similar in the sense that they both emphasize the importance of holistic care in the achievement of good health. However, theory of human caring recommends the establishment of care to complement cure while theory of comfort emphasizes the need to address the needs of the patient for them to achieve comfort (Owen, 2016). Thus,the theory of human caring is concerned with the process in the achievement of holistic care while the theory of comfort is concerned with the outcome through a process of relief, ease, and transcendence.

Description of a Client Situation

            A client that is suffering from breast cancer requires human caring due to the pain that they experience as a result of the illness. Under the human caring theory,nursing will involve establishing an interpersonal relationship between the nurse and the patient. The nurse will then practice loving and kindness within the context of caring. The nurse will then instill hope and faith in the patient by being constantly present at the bedside of the patient and encouraging them by defining their purpose. The nurse should also be sensitive to the patient’s spiritual practices as religion is also a tool of hope (Clark, 2016). The nurse can guide the patient in their spiritual practice. The nurse should also cultivate an environment of trust so that he/she can relate freely with the patient and share life values. The nurse could also assist the patient with basic needs with an intention of caring. The assistance will help to create healing in the body, soul, and mind.

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Facilitation of Outcomes

            One major strategy for facilitating outcomes involves advanced practice nurses’ use of the mid-range theory to facilitate the outcomes stipulated in the broad range theory. In the mid-range theory, the aim is to derive an outcome of comfort from the process of administering healthcare. An advanced practice nurse provides relief to a patient by administering cure. Curative procedures are meant to relieve the patient off the symptoms of the disease by treating the illness (Alligood, 2014). The process of treatment also involves the provision of care. The nurse will give hope to the patient that the illness will be cured and they will be able to go on with their normal lives. The treatment offered to the patient should be in line with their cultural and spiritual beliefs. A professional nurse should have cultural intelligence so that treatment incorporates cultural practices. The aspects of both care and cure should address the problem being encountered by the patient. For example, a nurse will treat a patient with drug-related illness then go ahead to establish why the patient abuses the drug. The nurse will then advise the patient on how they can overcome the problem as an alternative to indulgence in drugs. The patient will be eased of their problem because the nurse will have fully addressed his/her issues. The nurse then helps the patient to go on with a normal life that is free of drugs. In this case, the nurse has provided both care and cure to the patient.

Fig 1: Diagram Illustrating Theory of Human Caring

Source: https://sites.google.com/site/jwatsontheory/

Fig 2: Diagram Illustrating the Theory of Comfort

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2DKZ-02dtSY

Conclusion

            Nursing theories are important because they help in defining the practice of nursing, leading to better health outcomes. In the description and critical reflection of the human caring theory and the theory of comfort, it has been established that the two theories are concerned with the implementation of holistic care to achieve good health outcomes. Human caring theory emphasizes the need of combining care and cure in the practice of nursing, while the theory of comfort emphasizes the importance of holistic care in the achievement of comfort in healthcare.

References

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Clark, C. S. (2016). Watson’s Human Caring Theory: Pertinent Transpersonal and Humanities Concepts for Educators. Humanities5(2), 21.

Kolcaba, K. (2015). Katherine Kolcaba’s comfort theory. Nursing theories and nursing practice, 381-391.

Krinsky, R., Murillo, I., & Johnson, J. (2014). A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba’s comfort theory to cardiac patients. Applied Nursing Research27(2), 147-150.

Owen, M. I. (2016). An investigation of palliative care in heart transplant candidates utilizing Kolcaba’s Theory of Comfort (Doctoral dissertation, Rush University).

Pajnkihar, M., McKenna, H. P., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). Fit for Practice: Analysis and Evaluation of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Nursing Science Quarterly30(3), 243-252.

Sitzman, K., & Watson, J. (2013). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson’s human caring theory. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Yeter Durgun Ozan PhD, B. S. N. (2015). Implementation of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring: A Case Study. International Journal of Caring Sciences8(1), 25.

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