IT Assignment

Our professional essay writing service helps you get control over your studies
Get started Order in Chat
Years of experience
Papers prepared
Customer satisfaction


  Formatting instructions: How to format your review essay
1. Provide at least 1” margins, at least 12-point font, and at least 1.15-line spacing.
2. Number all the pages.
3. Length: The maximum length of the essay is 4 pages, excluding references.
4. Use headings.
5. Place references at the end of your review essay.

Structure of your review essay

Your review essay should have the following four sections. Use headings for all sections. Below I provide the body of text you should write in each section.
1. Introduction
A good introduction encourages readers to read your essay with great interest and prepares them to understand it better. You want to establish common ground, a shared understanding between reader and you about the topic you will write in the following sections. Then, you will concisely introduce what the focused topic is, and how your essay is organized to inform readers. This section is usually a single paragraph. Do NOT place summary in the introduction and conclusion sections. If you do so, the level of achievement will be lowered.
2. Summary
Assume that you are giving someone who has never read the article enough detail so that they could have a summary of the article. This section should provide the summary of the following key elements:
· Theoretical framework which the author drew on,
· Empirical data the authors collected and analyzed,
· Key findings based on the empirical data the authors collected and analyzed
Your summary should NOT be a mere copy of paragraph or the bulk of quotes from the article. You should provide a concise, comprehensive summary in your own words. In this section, please show me that you really read and comprehended the article at a level where you can cogently cover the most important parts succinctly.
3. Practical implications
In this section, you should write how the crux of the article is applied to a managerial view in how managers need to manage virtual employees and the challenges virtual employees face. This section should be concrete enough to layout action plans in the organization. Practical implications should have tight connections with the core of the article.
4. Conclusion
You wrap up your review. State overall contributions of the article, theoretically and practically. You should also write what more you would like to know. This section is usually a single paragraph.


Bartel OS Isolation Virtual Employees


Introduction. 2

Summary. 2

Practical Implications. 4

Conclusion. 4

References. 6


In today’s digital workplace, managers face a daunting task of managing relationships with virtual workers. Though telework is the preferred mode of work by between 80% and 90% of U.S. employees, it presents important challenges (Kurland & Egan, 2009). First, when employees are physically isolated, they are put in compromised positions because they are not able to interact with and observe their co-workers. Secondly, isolated employees tend to get detached from the organization’s prototypical standards, such as culture, values, and behaviors. Thirdly, loss of respect is likely to occur because the virtual employees’ status is technically reduced. Nonetheless, virtual work is emerging as a dominant trend in American organizations, particularly because it is associated with reduced cost of operation and convenience. Virtual work is also ideal for employees whose positions require them to work from elsewhere. This paper will examine research findings from work by Bartel, Wrzesiewski, and Wiesfield (2011) with regard to the relationship between virtual worker’s level of physical isolation and their perceived status or respect in their organizations. First, it will explore the article’s theoretical framework, methods of data collection, and key findings based on the collected data. In the second part, focus will be on the practical implications of the authors’ findings in real-life managerial contexts. The paper’s conclusion will wrap up the article’s overall theoretical nd practical contribution.



  The article by Bartel, Wrzesiewski, and Wiesfield (2011) seeks to examine the link between virtual employees’ level of physical isolation and the degree of perceived respect they get from organizations. In this context, respect has been conceptualized as the identity-grounded perception of how an employee is valued in an organization as demonstrated through social interactions. Other synonyms that have bee used in the article to refer to virtual work are remote work, telework, distributed work, and telecommuting. The guiding hypothesis in this article is that there is a connection between the degree of physical isolation and teleworkers’ perceived respect. This connection explains why there is low organizational identification among physically isolated telecommuters.

According to Bartel, Wrzesiewski, and Wiesfield (2011), previous work on telework has tended to compare the traditional in-office work with virtual work without considering the attributes of varied nature of locations from which these employees are working. The current study uses two field surveys with an organization and focuses on telework in an organization that has a central office, but where some employees have the option of working remotely or on part-time basis. The study’s theoretical framework is anchored on anecdotal accounts suggesting that remote workers live with fear of having their credibility and standing compromised by the nature of their work arrangements.

The authors conducted semi-structured interviews on 29 employees working in a technology firm and whose work arrangements required them to be physically isolated most of times. Questions focused on employees’ experiences and how they make sense of working remotely, with specific attention on how the virtual work impact on their relationship with the organization. Overall, the study concludes that a larger degree of physical isolation results in lower perceived respect among virtual workers while lowering organizational identification.


Practical Implications

There are numerous takeaways that organizations who deal with remote workers can find from this study. First, having a good understanding of the relationship between employees’ physical isolation and organizational connectedness is important for managers in the increasingly interconnected world. This is because isolation reduces the level of physical contact among workers while creating a sense of detachment (Cascio, 2010). In order to build cohesive workplaces where everybody feels valued, included, and respected, managers should attempt to put in place work arrangements that would ensure that employees spend considerable time in centralized offices. Secondly, managers can enhance their virtual employees’ organizational identification by continually reassuring them and making them aware that they are as accepted and included as their in-office counterparts. With technological innovations allowing new forms of work arrangements, organizations should strive to establish how physical isolation is affecting their employees, their attitudes towards work, workplace interactions, performance, and long-term career outcomes. According to Mulki et al. (2008), employees who feel valued by and connected to their organizations are likely to perform better. Thus, it is imperative for managers to find ways of making their employees to feel respected and confident, whether they are working on-site or remotely.


  Ideally, the study by Bartel, Wrzesiewski, and Wiesfield (2011) adds to the existing literature about the amount of time that employees spend in physically isolated work contexts and how this time affects their organizational identification and perceived respect. Such knowledge is important at a time when organizations are undergoing rapid modifications to improve efficiency and flexibility and to keep at pace with technological changes. The findings of the study suggest that where virtue work is a norm, virtual interactions and mentoring relationships can work to promote the feeling of respect among members of an organization.


Bartel, C., Wrzesiewski, A. & Wiesfield, B. M. (2011). Knowing Where You Stand: Physical Isolation, Perceived Respect, and Organizational Identification among Virtual Employees; Organization Science, 23(3): 743-757

Cascio, W. F. (2010). Managing a virtual workplace: The Academy of Management Executive14(3), 81-90

Kurland, N. B., & Egan, T. D. (2009). Telecommuting: Justice and control in the virtual organization. Organization Science10(4), 500-513.

Mulki, J. P., Locander, W. B., Marshall, G. W., Harris, E. G., & Hensel, J. (2008). Workplace isolation, salesperson commitment, and job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management28(1), 67-78.

What you will get
Professional writers
Our strict writer selection process ensures that only professional college essay writers, subject-matter experts with MA and higher degrees work on your orders.
100% confidentiality
Your personal data is in no way shared with third parties. Writers also do not have access to it. We require your email address for login and notification purposes only.
Affordable prices
Essay Help USA is a cheap essay writing service offering the best balance between quality and price. Regular customers enjoy special discounts, deals, and other perks.
Original content
We guarantee plagiarism-free work and that your custom college papers will pass Turnitin. Since Turnitin saves all files, we check papers with Copyleaks and Copyscape.
Here's why students opt for our essay writing company
Hiring a qualified paper writer is one of the best ways to improve your academic writing skills and do better in class.
Lack of time
GPA concerns
Tough topic
Trust issues
When 24 hours is not enough
Most of the students approach us when they are overworked, work in parallel with studies, do internships, and do not have enough time for everything. So, we are their problem solvers and even offer super short 1-3 hour deadlines for emergency requests.
Quick turnaround time. You will receive your
paper before the deadline.
Get started Order in Chat
When grades need a boost
Our experts can help improve your performance and earn you a maximum grade. This is made possible due to the strict quality control, writers' rating system, adherence to requirements, proper formatting, access to all academic databases, credible and up-to-date sources.
Only credible sources. Your work will be based on reputable
sources that provide factual information on the topic.
Get started Order in Chat
When getting help is the best option
Sometimes you can get stuck on a topic, may not be able to find adequate sources, or access to such sources can be too expensive. That's when extra help might be the most valuable tactic to save nerves and meet the deadline with a high-quality paper.
All copyrights belong to you. You can use the delivered
samples in any way you choose.
Get started Order in Chat
When reliable service is needed
We cover almost all types of work, regardless of their complexity. That is why our service is used by college, high school, undergraduate, MA, and Ph.D. students from the USA, UK, and other regions. Besides, we partner with safe payment methods and provide a transparent refund policy.
Money-back guarantee. We will return your money
if you are not satisfied with the result.
Get started Order in Chat
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Essay Help USA
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Coming from the holidays, I'm glad you've helped me set the tone bck into academics. such a great paper.
Customer 453250, December 28th, 2018
very profesional
Customer 453025, May 2nd, 2019
Nice paper. The writer did an excellent job despite the short notice. And YES, the paper was 100% original!
Customer 453250, May 10th, 2018
I called and was promised quality. True to their word, I got a high-quality paper.~satisfied customer~
Customer 452989, January 7th, 2018
Thank you for helping me throughout my academic journey. I would highly recommend your services to fellow students out there who are lagging behind with deadlines. Like you, I was skeptical at first. I particularly like assigning my advanced papers to the best writers. they have a package for that i think.
Customer 453041, November 21st, 2019
Customer 453250, November 17th, 2018
Excellent Job. This writer is good at diving deep into the subject matter and producing an excellent product!
Customer 453250, July 7th, 2018
Customer 453250, December 31st, 2020
Customer 453061, October 5th, 2020
Environmental Studies
Customer 452991, July 11th, 2018
great work
Customer 453280, March 12th, 2019
Great choice of topic, nicely done in prose form. The references and in-text citations are on point too. I like your professionalism guys!!!!!!
Customer 453250, April 27th, 2018
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
Show more